|written by: Joe Cox
Resource: Exploring Visual Design: The Elements and Principles, Joseph Gatto, Albert Porter, Jack Selleck. Davis Publications. 2000.
Line: An element of art that is used to define shape, contours, and outlines, also to suggest mass and volume. It may be a continuous mark made on a surface with a pointed tool or implied by the edges of shapes and forms.
Characteristic of Line are:
Types of Line:
1. Below are five boxes. Create a different type of line for each box.
2. In the blank under the box come up with a name for that line that describes it.
_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ______________
Categories of Color
Color Wheels a tool used to organize color. It is made up of:
Color Harmonies is when an artist uses certain combinations of colors that create different looks or feelings.
· Analogous Colors are colors that are next to each other on the color wheel for example red, red orange, and orange are analogous colors.
· Triadic Harmony is where three equally spaced colors on the color wheel are used for example, yellow, Red, Blue is a triadic harmony color scheme.
· Monochromatic is where one color is used but in different values and intensity.
· Warm colors are on one side of the color wheel and they give the felling of warmth for example red, orange and yellow are the color of fire and feel warm.
· Cool colors are on the other side of the color wheel and they give the feeling of coolness for example blue, violet, are the color of water, and green are the color of cool grass.
On a sheet of paper create a color wheel.
Shape: When a line crosses itself or intersects with other lines to enclose a space it creates a shape. Shape is two-dimensional it has heights and width but no depth.
Categories of Shapes:
Create a Shape
In box 1 create a design with Geometrical Shapes
In box 2 create a design with Organic Shapes
In these two boxes below draw the same picture in each box. The first box shade the positive space and the second box shade the negative space.
Space is the three-dimensionality of a sculpture. With a sculpture or architecture you can walk around them, look above them, and enter them, this refers to the space of the sculpture or architecture. A three-dimensional object will have height, width, and depth.
Space in a two-dimensional drawing or painting refers to the arrangement of objects on the picture plane. The picture plane is the surface of your drawing paper or canvas. You can have a picture plane that is a crowded space with lots of objects or an empty space with very few objects in the picture plane. A two-dimensional piece of art has heights and width but no depth. The illusion of depth can be achieved by using perspective. This is the technique used to have your picture look likes it is moving to the distance like a landscape or cityscape.
Categories of Space
Positive space-Like in positive shape it is the actual sculpture or building.
Types of Perspective
o Position-Placing an object higher on the page makes it appear farther back then objects placed lower on the page.
o Overlapping-When an object overlaps another object it appears closer to the viewer, and the object behind the object appears farther away.
o Size Variation-Smaller objects look farther away in the distance. Larger objects look closer.
o Color-Bright colors look like they are closer to you and neutral colors look like they are farther away.
o Value-Lighter values look like they are farther back and darker value look like they are closer. For example in a landscape the mountains often look bluish and lighter then the trees or houses that are closer to you.
Linear Perspective is the method of using lines to show the illusion of depth in a picture. The following are types of linear perspective.
o One-point perspective-When lines created by the sides of tables or building look like that are pointing to the distance and they all meet at one point on the horizon this is one-point perspective. To see an example stand in the middle of the hallway and look at the horizontal lines in the brick or the corner where the ceiling meets the wall. See how they move to one point on the horizon.
o Two-point perspective-Here the lines look like they are meeting at two points on the horizon line
Texture is the surface quality of an object. A rock may be rough and jagged. A piece of silk may be soft and smooth and your desk may feel hard and smooth. Texture also refers to the way a picture is made to look rough or smooth.
Categories of Texture
Using your pencil
create different types of textures in the boxes below.
Explain what the texture is at the bottom of each box.
Categories of Value:
Create a 5 value, Value Scale.
Beginning with the box on the right leave it blank, it will be the lightest value of the value scale. The box on the far left will be the darkest value, so shade it in completely black. The three remaining shade in to show a gradual change form the lightest to the darkest.
Form is the three-dimensionality of an object. Shape is only two-dimensional; form is three-dimensional. You can hold a form; walk around a form and in some cases walk inside a form. In drawing or painting using value can imply form. Shading a circle in a certain manner can turn it into a sphere.
Types of Form
Draw and correctly shade the four basic Forms.